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Active biodegradable films based on the whole potato peel incorporated with bacterial cellulose and curcum
Article history:
Received 30 September 2019
Received in revised form 16 January 2020
Accepted 29 January 2020
Available online 30 January 2020
Potato peel
Bacterial cellulose
Development of biodegradable food packaging using biomass based materials derived from agricultural wastes
has been a trend in recent years. The biopolymer films were prepared using 3% and 5% (w/w) potato peel (PP)
powder. Bacterial cellulose (BC) (0, 5, 10 and 15% based on PP powder) was added as a reinforcement agent.
The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that 10% BC had a promising compatibility with the PP matrix.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the crystallinity and the thermal stability of films did not change with BC addition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the hydrogen bonding interactions between the PP matrix and BC in the films. BC addition significantly improved the
tensile strength (TS), but reduced their water vapor permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability (OP) and moisture
content (MC) of the PP films. Addition of curcumin further increased the antioxidant properties of the PP films.
The PP films with 1–5% curcumin significantly reduced lipid oxidation in the fresh pork during storage with
lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content.
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Biodegradable food packaging can reduce or even replace the synthetic plastic packaging. Petroleum-derived polymeric packaging is
hard to be degraded after use, which causes serious damage to our environment. Every year, plentiful agricultural by-products can provide
inexpensive and renewable biodegradable polymers for the producing
of food packaging all over the world.
Potato is the fourth major crop after rice, wheat and maize over the
world [1]. Millions of tons of potato peel (potato peel, PP) waste are produced every year [2], leading to handling and storage problems [3]. Conventional management strategies for elimination of the PP pollutants
are cropland composting or producing feed for ruminant animals [4].
Besides this, PP is also a good resource of biodegradable polymers, including carbohydrates (12 g/100 g) and low amounts of protein
(2.56 g/100 g) [5]. Development of the biodegradable films based on
the whole PP therefore is a promising application for the surplus PP,
which can increase the economic value and decrease the process steps
of PP.
Nowadays, the peel wastes of certain fruits and vegetables have
been already used to prepare the biodegradable films. Previous studies
have reported development of biopolymer films using the peel wastes,
such as ripe banana peel flour [6], pomegranate peel powder [7], olive
pomace residue [8], blueberry residue [9], and babassu mesocarp residue [10]. Compared to pure biopolymers, such as starches, polysaccharides, cellulose, or proteins, extracted from agricultural sources, the
use of natural mixture of biopolymers directly obtained from agroindustrial byproducts has the advantage of using the whole agricultural
sources, and decreasing the process steps, waste, and the costs of production. Actually, using the whole agricultural sources is a convenient
approach to avoid incompatibility between the different biopolymers
extracted from agricultural sources. However, application of PP or PPborn biopolymers to prepare the biodegradable or edible films has
been scarcely documented. As far as we know, only one published article has reported the way for the development of PP biopolymer films
with glycerol as the plasticizer [3]. The relatively poor mechanical properties are the common defect of biopolymer-based films. Therefore, the
mechanical properties of PP films are still needed to be improved. Moreover, the antioxidative films based on the PP waste have never been
Compared to plant cellulose, bacterial cellulose (BC) possesses
higher tensile strength and water holding capacity, and better biocompatibility due to its distinct ultrafine fibrils of nanosized threedimensional network structure [11,12]. Nowadays, BC has been
widely applied to ameliorate moisture barrier, thermal stability and
mechanical properties of the biocomposite films due to its promising
characteristics [13–18]. As aforementioned, BC is supposed to improve the properties of the PP films as a reinforcement agent in the
present study.
Nowadays, active packaging films have been developed to prolong shelf life of food products and to maintain their quality. Specifically, antioxidant active packaging films have been the focus to
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