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By tctuvan
#920486 Chia sẻ cho anh em ketnooi
2
LESSON 1
Section A: Language Focus
I. Compare the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences
II. Put the verbs in the following passage in their correct forms
The expressions haves and have-nots suffer from the same weakness as developed and
underdeveloped. The word developing is used/ has been used as a replacement for
underdeveloped, but this terminology only treats one end of the spectrum. The designations
used here – less developed and more developed – represent one of the more common pairs.

Other names have arisen from political relations. Since World War II, the antagonism
between the United States with its close allies and the Soviet Union with its affiliated
countries has divided most of the world into two blocs (i.e. “two worlds”). The remaining
countries, having less political and military power, have been called Third World countries.
In more recent times, the economic differences among nations within the Third World
group have led to the addition of the term Fourth World. Mixing political alignments with
economic conditions, however, have caused difficulties in classifying countries that may
have the characteristics of two categories (that is, be closely allied with one of the major
power blocs but yet be economically poor).

Alternative terms differentiate between industrial and non-industrial countries, but these
titles are misleading when countries are industrially important yet economically poor (e.g.
China and India) or are rich but not industrial (e.g. Oman and Brunei). Likewise, refering to
North and South countries is confusing because Australia and New Zealand are included in
the “north” class, whereas Mongolia and North Korea are considered a part of the “south”
group. Similar locational misinterpretations result when core and periphery are applied
because Australia and Japan are far from the “core”, whereas Morocco and Albania are
close to it. [The core refers to countries situated around the North Atlantic where Europeans
and North Americans industrialized their economies and expanded trading spheres from
the 15th to 19th centuries. They created an economic core that affected many subsequent
decisions about where to locate production. Basically there are advantages to operating in
or near the heart (core) of an economic system and disadvantages in being located on the
margins (periphery). The economic patterns that emerged during the last century, therefore,
reinforced the economically dominant core and the dependent periphery.] Names that
describe the type of economic system as well as wealth (i.e. technically advanced market
economies, less developed market economies, and centrally controlled economies) are useful, but
these are somewhat awkward when mentioned repeatedly in a discussion.

Reference to a specific set of countries (e.g. those in the “Group 77” of the United Nations or
the 24 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) is
meaningful, but there is no worldwide system that has formed inclusive or mutually
exclusive groups.
From Human Geography - People, Places and Cultures by Stoddard et al
UNIT TWO

HOW DO PEOPLE EARN THEIR LIVING?
(POPULATION AND ECONOMIC ISSUES)
2
LESSON 1
Section A: Language Focus
I. Compare the use of the Present Perfect and the Past Simple in the following sentences
II. Put the verbs in the following passage in their correct forms
The expressions haves and have-nots suffer from the same weakness as developed and
underdeveloped. The word developing is used/ has been used as a replacement for
underdeveloped, but this terminology only treats one end of the spectrum. The designations
used here – less developed and more developed – represent one of the more common pairs.

Other names have arisen from political relations. Since World War II, the antagonism
between the United States with its close allies and the Soviet Union with its affiliated
countries has divided most of the world into two blocs (i.e. “two worlds”). The remaining
countries, having less political and military power, have been called Third World countries.
In more recent times, the economic differences among nations within the Third World
group have led to the addition of the term Fourth World. Mixing political alignments with
economic conditions, however, have caused difficulties in classifying countries that may
have the characteristics of two categories (that is, be closely allied with one of the major
power blocs but yet be economically poor).

Alternative terms differentiate between industrial and non-industrial countries, but these
titles are misleading when countries are industrially important yet economically poor (e.g.
China and India) or are rich but not industrial (e.g. Oman and Brunei). Likewise, refering to
North and South countries is confusing because Australia and New Zealand are included in
the “north” class, whereas Mongolia and North Korea are considered a part of the “south”
group. Similar locational misinterpretations result when core and periphery are applied
because Australia and Japan are far from the “core”, whereas Morocco and Albania are
close to it. [The core refers to countries situated around the North Atlantic where Europeans
and North Americans industrialized their economies and expanded trading spheres from
the 15th to 19th centuries. They created an economic core that affected many subsequent
decisions about where to locate production. Basically there are advantages to operating in
or near the heart (core) of an economic system and disadvantages in being located on the
margins (periphery). The economic patterns that emerged during the last century, therefore,
reinforced the economically dominant core and the dependent periphery.] Names that
describe the type of economic system as well as wealth (i.e. technically advanced market
economies, less developed market economies, and centrally controlled economies) are useful, but
these are somewhat awkward when mentioned repeatedly in a discussion.

Reference to a specific set of countries (e.g. those in the “Group 77” of the United Nations or
the 24 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) is
meaningful, but there is no worldwide system that has formed inclusive or mutually
exclusive groups.
From Human Geography - People, Places and Cultures by Stoddard et al

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