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By rica17
#881597 Race Cm1 Aerodynamics

Designing for Speed
How aerodynamics shapes race cars, see Chapter 1.
Using a wind tunnel for surface-flow visualization, see Chapter 3.
Air flow through underbody channels on an open-wheel race car, see Chapter 6.
Significant developments in race-car aerodynamics, see Chapter 7.
Preface vii 1. Overview: Aerodynamics and Race Cars..............1

The Impact of Aerodynamics on Vehicle Shape 1

Aerodynamic Downforce and Performance 4

Creating and Measuring Aerodynamic Forces 6

How Aerodynamics Shapes Race Cars 10

The Impact of Racing Aerodynamics on Production Cars 15

The Following Chapters 22

2. Aerodynamic Forces and Terms...................23

Basic Terminology 23

The Boundary Layer 30

Bernoulli’s Equation 34

Flow Over Bodies and the Pressure Coefficient 40

Drag, Lift, and Side Force 45

Relevant Literature 52

References 53

3. Tools of the Trade..............................55

Road Testing 56

Wind Tunnel Methods 64

Computational Methods 89

References 97

4. Airfoils and Wings..............................99

Airfoils: Basic Definitions 99

Finite Wings 115

Basic Lifting Surface Interactions 136

Examples of Various Airfoil Shapes 139

References 145

5. Aerodynamics and Vehicle Performance............147

Tire Performance 147

Vehicle Dynamics 152

The Effect of Aerodynamics on Performance 157

References 177

6. Aerodynamics of the Complete Vehicle............179

Basic Vehicle Body Concepts 181

Aerodynamics of the Complete Vehicle 188

Flow Over Wheels 194

Sliding Seals and Skirts 200

Underbody Channels (Venturis) 203

Simple Add-ons: Spoilers, Strakes, and Wickers 208

Internal Flow 214

Race Car Wings 224

References 241

7. Real-world Examples...........................243

Milestones: Historically Important Designs 243

More Current Examples 252

References 262

Appendix 1: Drag Coefficients 263 Appendix 2: Wind Tunnels 265 Index 267
About the Author

On the surface, automobile racing appears simply as a very popular sport, with its attendent media coverage and commercial sponsorships. But in reality, racing serves as a proving ground for new technology and a battlefield for the giants of the automotive industry.

Although human factors are frequently publicized as the reason behind the success or failure of one racing team or another, engine power, tire adhesion, chassis design, and, recently, aerodynamics probably play a more important role in winning this technology race.

From the historical point of view, post-World-War II automobile racing was initially dominated by developments related to engine technology, and later to tire advancements. Since both technologies were extremely expensive, only the better supported teams could afford large investments.

During the 1960s, race car aerodynamics evolved as an important and relatively inexpensive technology that could place the smaller and less well-funded teams in the winner’s circle. As time progressed, race-car aerodynamics became more refined, and today all race cars are tested in expensive wind tunnels as part of a continuous development process.

In spite of the huge progress made by the aerospace industry, the effect of aerodynamics on vehicle performance still seems to be the least understood of the aforementioned technologies. Therefore, after a brief review of the subject of aerodynamics and current vehicles in the first chapter, I explain the elementary aspects of air flow over race cars, so that the reader can later correlate between a race car shape and the corresponding aerodynamic effects influencing vehicle performance. I dedicate an entire chapter to vehicle dynamics and performance to clearly explain the tremendous increases in cornering speeds due to aerodynamic down-force, and to clarify the misconception that aerodynamics is important only for drag reduction.

This book is intended to appeal to a wide range of enthusiasts, from racing fans who want to know why certain devices appear on their favorite team car, to well established designers who will appreciate the overall view of this text and the supporting data. The technical information is sufficiently descriptive for the nontechnical reader, but also includes a wide enough data-base which may be useful, even to professionals, when rapid preliminary information is sought.

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